In one of the coldest places in Canada, Steve Kokelj is searching for Arctic thaw. He's driving the great Dempster Highway, 747 kilometres of gravel linking southern Canada to the Arctic.
"The large permafrost disturbances that we're seeing now have really developed in the last one to two decades," he says.
"Think of permafrost as sort of the glue that holds the northern landscape together."
But as the Arctic warms three times as fast as anywhere else in the world, that permafrost — made up of leftover ice from the last glaciation, frozen for thousands of years — is degrading.